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August , Climate Camp, Blackheath, London. This banner was strung up to commemorate a year of bankruptcies and bailouts. Then there were the zero hour contracts, the precarious pay and the collapse of services to contend with. It was a simple slogan. But it was one that stuck. It captured the sentiment of a moment in three simple words. It was both an analysis and a coalitional call. The banner crystallized decades of protest, from the anti-capitalist legacies of Class War to the J19 Carnival Against Capitalism in , from May Day Monopoly in , to the G8 Summit protests at Gleneagles itself home to an eco-village HoriZone camp.

At the same time, this banner carried forward short-term legacies of camping for Climate Justice. Usually made out of wood or scaffolding, tripods have a genealogy of resistance that travelled here from early pre-designs in India, to logging blockades in Australia, and then into the UK during Reclaim the Streets among other adventures along the way. While the Climate Camp banner was explicitly anti-capitalist in its message, since its inception, Climate Camp was committed to creating alternatives to capitalist life and targeting corporate proponents of climate change.

Grown out of the G8 protests, climate camps have served as convergence spaces were a range of political ideologies and practices come into contact with one another. The following year this message was amplified at the Heathrow Climate Camp resisting plans to build a new runway — running right through local villages. These portraits were multi-purpose, designed out of pop-up tent boxes, they served as both a protective device for fending off police baton blows and a transport mechanism for moving tents from the base encampment to the BAA headquarters blockade.

These portrait-shield-tent transport devices brought together function and art. And afterwards, they went on reverberating in the book blocks of Italy that made their way into the UK student protest against tuition fees in —designed through passed along box on gaffer tape techniques. In these ways creativity travels through protests just as much as ideologies or badges of belonging that stick us to specific organisations.

Such playfulness of disobedient design is often a response to state brutality, to violent modes of policing that also travel transnationally. The shield, the mask, the barricade, adorned and re-designed over the years, always develops in response to repression. They are fossils of resilience, but they are also artefacts of social control. When tricked into talking about repression, these protest objects tell another set of stories:. In CS moved to aerosol form, finding a place on the hips of British police officers. Ever since, such chemicals have been sprayed in the faces of nonviolent protesters.

They were recently used on UK Uncut protesters, students occupying at the University of Warwick, and demonstrators at the Reclaim Brixton march against corporate gentrification. In the years since the Arab uprisings and urban square occupations around the world, sales in so-called crowd management equipment have tripled. Here in the UK, the summer riots and student fee protests were used to justify the purchase of water cannons for the London Metropolitan Police.

As austerity cuts and climate injustice continue to fuel civil unrest all over the world, those in the business of selling riot control see their profits rise from the repression of protest. In October , this banner resurfaced outside of St. In a semi-organized act of encampment, on 15 October , the day to show international solidarity with Occupy Wall Street, an estimated 2, Londoners took to the streets around Paternoster Square, home of the London Stock Exchange.

Greeted by double rows of metal barricades, riot police, dogs and horses, it soon became clear that camp was not going to be set up in the planned concrete courtyard outside the Exchange. After circling all of the entrances in hopes of a back way in, we found ourselves in the square outside St. Within two hours the crowd had decided, by consensus, that they would camp right there in the square outside St.

Call outs were made to start coordinating food, shelter and sanitation. It was often used to frame photojournalists shots of the encampement. It hung over the area where general assemblies were often held. It greeted tourists and reminded commuters of why the camp was there. Like any symbol, it was contested, debates arose of whether the camp was really anti-capitalist or just wanted alternatives to austerity and banking power. Such debates were not new to UK protest.

Like other convergence-based campsites, people came together from all different experiences, backgrounds and attachments. What Would Jesus Do. The banner was a call to action and to a deeper reflection. It was an act of activist PR, hijacking the debate and the media frame with a story that mattered.

It drew out other debates emerging in the encampment — around homelessness, mental health, the need for public space, the responsibilities of governments in a democracy, and the role of religion in contemporary Britain. In other words, things got complicated. But then, things have always been complicated. The sentiment of interconnectedness was there. It was built upon a foundation laid decades before, birthed from the promiscuous protests that came before; a messy family tree including slavery abolition, May uprisings, Anti-apartheid campaigns and queer anti-capitalisms to name only a few.

Movements are just a god-trick for looking down, separating out, categorising, taxonimising, pinning butterfly wings to the wall. It is people who move. They move under what Judith Butler has called wavering banners of identity. Our messy selves, stick and unstick to issues and each other. People stick and unstick because of friendships, lovers, families, class backgrounds, racial identifications, jobs, childhood attachments, spoken languages — what Aimee Rowe Carlson calls our longings and belongings Rowe Understanding protest requires methods for analysing how struggles are bound up together.

There are truths that objects record that people alone cannot recount. They archive the contradictions and conflicts that stick and unstick people. Those differences that bind struggles together, as well as those that repel, or frighten or discomfort. This happens in our work because it is easier than talking about how we are scared of each other sometimes. That other people are hell. God-trick formations of movements are far easier to peer review publish than woven tales of mismatched threads.

These complicated times call for complicated stories. Stories that do not shy away from the mess. Yet, our analyses also need clear targets for intervention. How can our work better contribute? What can it track and trace? Money flows traced back to profiteers, as well as to the experts that legitimize state and corporate violence.

The geologists pinpointing perfect fracking spots, and the PR firms selling the public on them are also — though not equally — responsible. Like the doctors and psychologists that helped make Guantanamo Bay, expertise and communications are key members of any climate criminal gang.

In all of these networks, objects are also to be held accountable. Tracked, mapped, sabotaged as they wind around the land and under the sea, like pipelines and internet cables. But to confront these complex networks of capitalism as crisis, other attachments of Social Movement Studies need to keep being narrated away — attachments to the god-trick of seeing from above, to categorizing outcomes into neat little boxes, to creating new words with ever expanding -izations, to disciplinary recognition, to the myth that any of us go it alone.

The struggle is to find ways to tell complicated stories that can later be simplified. Both the research and the protests that move us come from complicated work. They arise out of wading through mess: Making time and space for care, building trust into relationships and sitting with discomfort, are all necessary components of research that goes on in the background, before the final act appears. It must be complicated before it is three simple words. Anna Feigenbaum , November Toward a Feminist Politics of Relation. Haraway , Donna War and democracy in the age of empire.

Before joining the department of Journalism, English and Communication, she was a Lecturer in Media and Politics from Beyond the university, she runs a variety of workshops on data storytelling for local businesses, NGOs and community groups. She also provides consultancy for campaigns, archives and museum exhibitions related to her research. Die mit dem Appell verbundene Petition kann man hier unterzeichnen. Der offene Brief im Wortlaut:. Gestaltung ist immer politisch. Das Wechselspiel zwischen Verhandeln, Erproben und Anwenden beschreibt einen offenen Prozess, der mindestens so viel Experiment wie Pragmatismus erfordert.

Die Stiftung Buchkunst will ein solcher Ort sein. Praktisch alle Bereiche wie Wirtschaft, Arbeit bis hin zur Gesundheitsversorgung sollen digitalisiert werden. Denn je inklusiver die Prozesse, desto inklusiver deren Resultate. Dies erfordert allerdings auch abweichungsfeste gesetzliche Regelungen, die auch die Privatwirtschaft in die Pflicht nehmen. Der Einfluss der beratenden Institutionen z. Der Abbau von bestehenden Barrieren ist dabei ein wichtiger, zugleich letztlich aber unzureichender Schritt.

Weitaus wirksamer ist es, Barrieren gar nicht erst entstehen zu lassen. Das zu schaffen, kann nur gemeinsam gelingen. Echte Teilhabe entsteht nicht am Ende eines Prozesses, sondern an dessen Beginn. Tom Bieling , August Beides — Verrohung und Erkenntnis — hat durch ihre technische Bedingtheit mit Gestaltung zu tun. Und beides umso mehr mit politischer Haltung.

So auch bei Raban Ruddigkeit in seinem heutigen Kommentar. Habib war der beste Freund meiner Kindheit. Habib war der Sohn eines syrischen Medizinstudenten, der Leipzig dann doch nicht attraktiv genug fand, um nach seinem Studium einem Kind zuliebe in dieser Tristesse zu verbringen. Habib und ich bastelten Collagen, die sich mit Luis Corvalan solidarisierten, spielten Cowboy und Indianer und bekamen immer dieselben Spielzeuge geschenkt. Habib wurde der erste Punk in seinem Kiez, was damals soviel bedeutete wie; nicht das anzuziehen, was alle anzogen. Und vor allem nicht das zu sagen, was alles sagten.

Habib hatte nur noch die Wohnung seiner Mutter als sicheres Zuhause und er wurde immer stiller. Sofort nach dem Mauerfall verschwand Habib nach Amsterdam, wo es Sachen gab, die er lieben musste. Damals, als es noch keine Shoppingmall war, sondern ein schwarzes Loch wie das gesamte kleine Land. Danach habe ich den Kontakt verloren. Als ich ihn in Amsterdam besuchen wollte, kam er nicht zur verabredeten Stelle. Ich habe mir die Finger wund gegoogelt und kenne mittlerweile einige Habibs in Amsterdam und dem Rest der Welt …. Raban Ruddigkeit , August When it comes to user inquiry and observation in design research, much emphasis is placed on verbal exchange and dialogue.

Furthermore it discusses the production of visual data by informants as a way of communicating during the interview process. Based on these findings it looks at the possibility of using objects, and then more specifically clothing, to aid the interview process and to facilitate communication. The structure of interviews used in research methods could be pictured as a spectrum, ranging from structured to unstructured Brinkmann , A structured interview, one which aims to produce quantitative data, consists of a predetermined, invariable list of questions with finite answers, the purpose of which is to produce findings which are easy to classify.

Semi-structured interviews, most often used to collect qualitative data, should be open enough to allow unexpected, voluntary input from the subject, while still being structured enough to follow the topics important to the research project Brinkmann , The researcher develops the interview alongside the answers from the respondent, in order to probe specific information and encourage dialogue about the research topic Weiss , 2.

The interview structure, as well as the chosen method of interview and the way it is implemented, is very specific to a project and its research topic ibid. In this essay, I will focus specifically on the semi-structured interview, as this is the most widely used interview structure for the collection of qualitative data Brinkmann , Within the classification of semi-structured interviews, the qualities of the interview can be further influenced by the method of communication used to conduct it, for example via email or in person. An in-person interview, where the interviewer and the respondent communicate verbally, face to face, is seen as an effective method of gathering qualitative data.

It provides the researcher with a direct reaction to their questions and a chance to develop a rapport with the interviewee, more so than in an interview conducted by email, for example Plano Clark , An interesting characteristic of an in-person interview is that the interviewer is also able to observe the non-verbal reactions of the respondent when they answer questions, creating a richer source of data from which to work with.

The inclusion of non-verbal communication during the process of interviewing is a concept which this paper will explore further, by looking at visual and object elicitation, and how these can affect the response of an informant. As it stands, areas of study that practice qualitative research, such as sociology, rely heavily on language and often follow the practice of firmly separating language from other, non-verbal, methods of communication Banks , 9. The use of language is clearly crucial in communication, yet there are some notions and qualities which it cannot express Weber , Firstly it is important to look at some of the different forms of visual elicitation that could be used during the interview process.

Visual communication is inherently older than verbal communication and relates to our subconscious in a way that language cannot, attributing to it a completely different essence.

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Incorporating the use of visual communication when conducting an interview, through the use of visual stimuli, can change the character of the interview, possibly providing a richer response from the interviewee Harper , The involvement of visual data in an interview could be crucial in providing a method of communication which allows the participant to express situations, feelings and concepts which they themselves have not yet or cannot convert to verbal communication.

Images also affect the memory in a different way to language, and the use of visual stimuli as elicitation could provoke different, perhaps stronger memories in the respondent Weber , Images can be used to help facilitate the communication of an unfamiliar viewpoint, allowing the researcher, in the case of respondent generated visual data, to see the subject from the point of view of the respondent Jupp , The practice of viewing, and the way it is respected and interpreted, has evolved differently in different cultures and religions, and the importance of eye contact, for example, or the use of visual metaphors within language, varies between different countries.

In research, the understanding of the visual perceptions within a culture, through visual communication, could facilitate a greater understanding of the culture itself Ibid. Similarly, when images are created they are a representation of many factors; the history of the person creating the image, the situation surrounding the image etc. This concept will be addressed in the following paragraph in more detail. As in any form of research, the question is the priority, and the methods which follow should relate to the question, meaning that the researcher must first consider if visual elements used during an interview could add to the research process, prior to their implementation Banks , To further explore the effect of the use of visual stimuli during the interview process, it is advantageous to explore two possible mediums used in elicitation; photographs and diagrams.

The most common form of image-elicitation used during the interview process is photography Harper , Photographs can serve as a reference, for both the interviewer and the respondent, creating the starting point for a mutual understanding of the topic, and helping to familiarise the subject with the research question Ibid, Referring to a photograph can also act as a tool for focus within the interview, ensuring that topics relevant to the research are discussed Schwartz , Although they are a reproduction of people, objects or places as they may appear in reality, photographs are not strictly a factual representation.

For this reason photographs may sometimes be a difficult subject matter for research, however, this same subjectivity can make photographs an interesting form of elicitation. Due to the multiple meanings present, a lot can be said about the respondent in how they perceive the photograph, and the differing perceptions of various respondents can be compared Schwartz , The fact that the observer of a photograph will comment on the photograph according to his or her own views and experiences, means that the photograph can inspire different narratives from different subjects, or inspire conversational topics unexpected by the researcher, adding more depth to the interview Ibid, When subjectivity is seen as an important quality of qualitative research, the subjectivity of an image becomes relevant Jupp , A photographer can manipulate the technical aspects of a photograph in order to communicate a sociological idea Harper , Such a change in perception may be useful in helping the respondent to consider various viewpoints when responding to interview questions.

A photograph that was taken from a different angle, for example, could help inspire the respondent to see their everyday life, their job or their environment from a new and different perspective. He was experiencing trouble in engaging participants and encouraging them to talk enthusiastically and in-depth about their routine farm work. Eventually, he was able to stimulate the conversation by presenting them with aerial and historical photographs of the farms in question.

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Through this change in viewpoint, he encouraged deeper reflection from the respondents on what they would otherwise perceive as normal and mundane Ibid. The first instance of photographs used as elicitation in qualitative research interviews was by John Collier in , when he was a member of a research team working on a study to show the relation between environment and mental health.

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Collier performed control interviews which did not employ the use of photo elicitation, as well as those which did, providing a comparison between interviews with and without the use of this stimulus Collier , He illustrated quite clearly a few reasons why the use of photographs could help encourage a more reflective, relevant response from the informant. Before perceiving them as a form of elicitation, this study used photographs to create a standard evaluation system amongst researchers for describing the quality of the housing in the area of research.

When the research group analysed photographs of the various qualities of housing, it was discovered that the researchers were judging the housing differently according to their particular backgrounds. This illustrates further how a single photo shown to various people can be used to signify a difference in perception according to social background, and also how it can be used to quickly and easily convey a standard or norm. These responses to the subjective yet simultaneously factual qualities of photography inspired Collier to use photographs while interviewing respondents Ibid.

The use of photo viewing in an interview can create a relaxed atmosphere as it mimics a friendly, informal social activity. This can lead to more direct answers and lack of hesitation in providing information, sometimes even the disregard of the presence of the interviewer in a group interview, for example Schwartz , The act of taking photographs can also be used to facilitate the interview process, as shown by Donna Schwarz in her case study of the effects of change in a rural farm community in Iowa. She noticed that this initial photo-taking served as a way of introducing her to the farming community, stimulating conversations between her and the people of the town, creating a sense of ease between her and those who she was researching and even allowing her to photograph more intimate social situations, such as family interactions Ibid.

There are a few important points to remember when using photographs as stimuli in the interview process. Photographs, although useful when guiding an interview, can also be very influential. Also, photographs can elicit strong emotional responses in a respondent, leading to unpredictable, unstable reactions Ibid.

It is important that the researcher gives careful consideration to which and how many photos to show during the interview, at which point during the interview the photographs could be most effective, the format of the photographs, and of course, the subject matter of the photograph.

These are all factors which could directly affect the results of the interview, and therefore the research Collier , Due to the subjectivity of photographs, there are many questions surrounding images, where they come from, how they are perceived, or the different influences. A researcher using images should be well informed of the variables associated with them in order to correctly understand their use and the responses generated Weber , Diagrams rely on a combination of words and visual symbols to express and simplify ideas and concepts which may otherwise be problematic to communicate.

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They are not literal representations of reality and range from more text-based, such as a table of information, to more visual, such as an infographic. Diagrams are unique as visual stimuli in their capacity to represent both the physical world and abstract ideas, making them an ideal tool during an interview, to illustrate concepts and ideas that may be hard to express in a purely verbal way. This section looks at the effects of using an existing diagram, or one created by the researcher, as a method of communication during the interview process. When referenced by both parties, a diagram can help to confirm a mutual understanding of the topic, to create a framework for discussing a topic and keep the interview relevant to the interviewer and the respondent Ibid.

A researcher may create diagrams and show these to the respondent, in order to generate feedback on the accuracy of the diagrams in their understanding and depiction of the research topic. The respondent then communicates their perception of the diagram, how this relates to what the researcher wanted to illustrate and how it may need to be altered to allow improved communication in future visual representations.

This is illustrated by Nathan Crilly, Alan F.

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John Clarkson in their interviews with industrial designers in They presented the designers with diagrams created for the research, depicting the factors in the industrial design process which could influence the appearance of the products, and asked for feedback on their accuracy. The interviews highlighted some important changes needed in the diagrammatic representation in order to correctly depict the design process. An interesting observation during this study was that the feedback was more forthcoming when the diagrams were communicated in a less finished, more sketch-like form, which could imply that the diagram is more effective at generating discussion when it is less polished and more open to interpretation Ibid.

Also, a diagram is often used to present a very specific point, and whilst this is a helpful tool, in being so specific the diagram is also more likely to be misrepresentative. When using diagrams as a form of elicitation, the way that they are presented is very important. It is helpful not to give the respondent too much stimulation at one time, in order to keep their attention focused and allow enough time for discussion. This could be achieved by, for example, making sure only to show one diagram at a time Ibid. Also, in order to avoid over influencing the opinion of the interviewee, to the point where their answers are determined by what they believe the researcher wants to hear, it may be recommended to not show the diagrams at the very beginning of the interview Ibid.

A Researcher may also ask respondents to generate visual data during an interview, by undertaking tasks such as producing a painting, taking photos or making a video, all of which can then be discussed during the interview process. It may also be interesting for the researcher to analyse how the object of visual communication is created, and what this can communicate about the respondent and their perception of the research topic Weber , The following paragraphs investigate respondent generated photo and video data, and drawings and diagrams, as ways of communicating ideas and concepts during the interview and research process.

Photographs used for elicitation during the interview process can also be provided by the informant. An existing family photo collection, for example, provided by the family members, could give an insight into their relationship dynamics. The content of the photographs, the situations, people and objects on which they are focused, may be informative in showing the values which influence the family Jupp , This concept can be taken one step further by asking the participant to take photos for the purpose of research, and then use them as elicitation during the interview process.

In this way, the researcher is handing over some of the power to the interviewee, almost like they are working together to solve a problem, to discover something significant towards the research Harper , This approach gives the respondent more control over the interview discussion and encourages an equal atmosphere during the interview. Asking the respondent to create their own photo or video documentation around a specific subject area also allows the researcher to see the subject from a different point of view Ibid. The result was the communication of a culture from within that culture, in a way that was inherently different to what the anthropologists could have perceived Ibid.

This study illustrates the advantages of visual material created by the respondent, as opposed to visual material created by the researcher, who would only be able to depict the research topic according to their own world views and beliefs. The interviewee may have insights into the subject that the researcher cannot attain Ibid. Similar, subsequent variations of this study include asking participants to create a film about a specific topic, allowing participants to make a film on a topic of their choice and asking participants to create films which could then be viewed together with the researcher, and become a starting point for discussions Ibid.

The subject of research exploration is not only the images or videos that the respondent produces, but also the associations which they might have to what they have recorded. It is also important that the correct balance is achieved between the input from the respondent and that from the researcher. Some researchers may ask the subject of an interview to use drawing as a form of communication to express the way that they feel about certain issues relating to the research topic.

This non-verbal explanation may allow the respondent to describe the way that they feel in a form which communicates different aspects to those which they could define verbally Jupp , In the same ways that photography, and other visual stimuli, have a greater connection to the emotional response of a respondent, the use of drawings could help the respondent better communicate emotions.

The use of diagrams by the respondent could also greatly facilitate situations where communication is otherwise an issue, due to language differences or illiteracy. Respondents with a disability which inhibits their verbal communication skills can often communicate more effectively through visual methods, such as drawing. Even those who do not have a disability, but do not respond well to the pressure of verbal communication, such as the need to give an immediate answer to a question, may be able to better express themselves through drawings and diagrams Ibid.

By encouraging the respondent to create diagrams, the researcher is allowing them to play a greater role in determining the topic and pace of the interview. This could create a greater sense of relaxation for the respondent and give them the strength to express more meaningful opinions. Instead of feeling pressured to respond, they are given the freedom to explore their own thoughts and control the agenda of the interview Ibid. The researcher should be mindful that giving the interviewee too few guidelines on how to produce a drawing or diagram can have negative consequences, as the freedom of expression becomes overwhelming and distracts the respondent from the topic.

Helpful guidance, such as how to structure the diagram and show the relationship between different subjects, can be very important. Objects as a Form of Elicitation and Communication during an Interview. Objects could also help facilitate the explanation of the topic at hand, as perceived in the previously mentioned study by Nathan Crilly, Alan F.

John Clarkson, which investigated the factors in the design process which influence the final appearance of the products. In the case of interviewing children, objects and environments could be a useful form of elicitation as they are more tangible. Objects can also be used as a channel of communication when discussing sensitive research topics, such as the use of dolls when discussing the topic of child abuse. The informant may not feel comfortable expressing emotional memories in an explicit way if the memories are very sensitive. In this interview scenario, the informants were asked in advance to select objects which had significance for them at that time in their lives.

Allowing the respondent to select the object or objects that they wanted to discuss during the interview, gave them a way to control the structure of the interview. By encouraging the interviewee to prompt the topics for discussion, the interview became more relevant to them Willig , However, due to the variety of objects a person could choose, the interview situation could become quite unpredictable for the researcher. The aim of the object elicitation was to avoid a standard question and answer situation during the interview.

The researcher was aware that the respondents had often been asked to describe their experience with cancer in terms of treatment assessments and in the discussion of their illness with friends and family. The research aimed to avoid a practised narrative, and the objects allowed the patients a fresh reflection on their situation Ibid. The informants contemplated their relationship with an object prior to the interview, when selecting it Ibid. A well illustrated example of this was the discussion surrounding a coffee maker, which the respondent had chosen because she used it every day and it was an integral part of her life.

During the interview she reflected on the process of making coffee and how much she enjoyed it, looking forward to it even. Through the presence of the coffee maker, and the physical associations it prompted, she realised how much the sensual experiences in her life meant to her at this time Willig , A physical object allows a respondent to consider their feelings and experiences, and the patients in this study related to their chosen objects as connections to their body, as triggers of certain emotional states or moods, reminders of their lives before cancer and as symbols of relationships.

The discussions inspired by the objects allowed greater insight into their present lives and assessment of their current values Ibid. It was noted during this study that it is possible for the presence of objects to distract the researcher. The use of clothing as elicitation has the potential to provoke a strong emotional response. There are many factors which influence the meanings associated with a garment; the historical and social context in which it was produced, the environment or way it was received or attained by the wearer, and the subsequent associations that the wearer then attributes to it.

The paper explores the use of clothing elicitation in interviews to investigate how the cultural perception of age, and age related conditions, influence the design of clothing for ageing generations, and how the design, in turn, influences the cultural perceptions of age. The studies interviewed the ageing demographics and the designers of the clothing, and relevant samples of clothing were requested from the designers in question and used as elicitation during the interviews.

The physical presence of garments during these interview processes allowed for more realistic, detailed discussions than, for example, the use of visual elicitation, such as photographs of the clothing in question. In a discussion which focuses on the body, an item which encourages thought and consideration about the body is a powerful tool Ibid. Study one explores the connection between fashion and late middle age, and the influence of clothing in how a woman of this age is perceived by society Ibid. In this study, the clothing helped to facilitate talk about sensitive issues such as ageing.

One designer, for example, was reluctant to talk about the concept that her designs targeted an older audience. However, when presented with the object of clothing itself, and encouraged to talk about it, she was more willing to explain her methods of designing clothing for a certain age, and how she understood what was appropriate for middle-aged women in terms of garments.

By talking about the object, rather than directly about a sensitive issue such as the ageing body, she was able to overcome her reluctance to speak Ibid. Before the interview process took place, it was decided by the steering group that it would not be advisable to interview patients with dementia using garments designed for people with this illness. This was due to the possible emotional response that may be elicited from the patients when confronted with such negatively characterised clothing; the fact that they were possible users of these products could negatively affect their mental condition Ibid.

The researcher decided not to carry out interviews with those affected by dementia, which was unfortunate, as opinions of the demographic in question were not represented. As part of the study, the clothing was photographed as worn by models who did not have dementia. Even this raised ethical issues, as the physical act of using the restrictive garments triggered negative emotions in the researchers and the models Ibid.

The garments functioned successfully as a method of communication, to express the sometimes very different reflections of those involved in the studies. This was especially noticeable when discussing clothing which raised ethical concerns, such as restricting the movements of a patient Ibid. Using photography as a method of recording during the interviews in these studies created some issues due to the need to preserve anonymity.

This was solved by pixelating the faces of those respondents who did not wish to be known, or taking photographs where the only part of the respondent shown was their hands Ibid. The possibility of using clothing elicitation in the exploration of sensitive issues such as ageing and illness is not highly explored and could benefit from further analysis Ibid.

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There are many positive attributes to non-visual elicitation and the use of non-verbal communication during the interview process. Using images or objects as props during an interview is a gentle way to keep a clear focus throughout, and to familiarise the respondent with the research topic. Images, photos and objects can be specific to a culture or part of society, and can be used to help understand and facilitate discussion about that society.

Visual and object elicitation inspire a different type of reflection from the respondent than purely verbal, and could inspire more varied and comprehensive answers. This could evoke or allow a better expression of complicated, subconscious or emotional feelings. The change in atmosphere when using images or objects as communication tools could help relax the informant and inspire discussion. An image or object is always created and is therefore subjective in its meaning and how it is viewed.

When the intent of the research is to gather qualitative data, providing personal insights and reflections, this can be a very useful quality. A person themselves is subjective, made of many different factors and experiences, and a subjective tool, such as a photograph or a garment, could elicit or help effectively communicate individual experiences and emotions.

Out of all the methods observed in this paper, photography is the most common and its effects are therefore most explored. It is useful in its ability to capture real life situations in great detail, making it very powerful in communicating accurately and to the point. For example, photography can describe a face in a much more instant way than a verbal description.

Viewing photographs as an activity is common in many cultures, an often intimate activity taking place between family and friends. Viewing photographs and mimicking this atmosphere in an interview environment could inspire a more relaxed and insightful conversation. The accurate yet subjective nature of photographs can inspire the respondent to reconsider a situation or experience from a different angle, literally. By manipulating the perception of the subject of a photograph, in how it is taken and the focus, the researcher can inspire the respondent to reconsider something that may be routine or commonplace.

Diagrams can be used to simplify ideas and concepts, allowing for direct, fast communication of specific topics. They can create a visual representation of an abstract topic, making them useful to communicate concepts or ideas which are hard to describe verbally, or where communication itself is problematic. This allows for the possibility to include less vocal groups, such as disabled persons, whose opinion may otherwise not be heard. Researchers can create diagrams to show to respondents in order to receive feedback on their understanding and depiction of a topic.

Diagrams created by a researcher need to be regularly reviewed and updated during the interview process. They are capable of representing very specific concepts and ideas, making the possibility of misrepresentation more likely. In cases where the respondents generate their own data, the researcher is allowing them a sense of control, and the feeling of working together with the researcher in a process of discovery. This could help to generate enthusiasm from the respondent, relaxes the atmosphere of the interview, and the transfer of power gives the respondent the confidence to express themselves.

Respondent generated visual data, or an object chosen for discussion by the respondent, allows the researcher to see the topic from a different viewpoint. The researcher is inhibited by their own experiences and backgrounds, and may also need stimulation in order to understand a subject from a different point of view. It is very helpful to discuss verbally any material that has been produced or chosen by the respondent, in order to fully understand the meanings and associations it holds for them.

Objects as a form of elicitation is an extremely interesting concept, as it appeals to a wider variety of senses and embodies the overall concept of bodily and emotional experience. This could add valuable depth to an interview, yet it is a concept that needs to be much further explored.

In our society, our connection to objects is very strong, and it could be a considerably interesting way to elicit communication about material culture. It is an object that is relevant to all of us and can be very representative of our thoughts, personalities and background. The research for this paper indicates that non-visual communication could be very beneficial in a qualitative interview. However, every research study is different, and the research design needs to be made accordingly.

The positive effect of visual methods or of objects as elicitation and as a means of communication is dependant on the nature of the study and the interview, on the attitude of the respondent and the type of data needed. For example, it could be harder to control the nature or amount of data produced when using objects as elicitation, or the production of photographs may be too complicated and expensive for the time and budget allowed. Photographs, diagrams and objects are all very subjective forms of elicitation, and for a successful collection of relevant data, it is imperative that the researcher understands the variables associated with these methods, how to utilise them, control them and interpret them.

This could prove difficult in the area of object elicitation, as it is not yet very common and is under researched. It is incredibly hard to fully understand the viewpoint of another person, and when images or objects help us in doing so they should be utilised. The subjectivity of these methods of communication, and their ability to involve the respondent in a more active way, to varying degrees, making them a useful tool in assuring that qualitative research is an exploration, rather than simply data collection.

Banks , M A Report on Two Experiments. Qualitative Research ; 6, pp. A Case for Photo Elicitation. Visual Studies, Volume Elicitation Techniques for Interviewing. Handbook of Interview Research: Not Just Any Dress: Narratives of Memory, Body, and Identity. Peter Lang Publishing, Inc.

Image Based Educational Research: Handbook of the Arts in Qualitative Research: Using and Interpreting Images. Using Photography in Qualitative Research. From drawings to diagrams: Visual Images in Research. Reflections on the Use of Object Elicitation. University of New Mexico Press. Zweifelsohne fiel uns der Verzicht auf die Teilnahme schwer. Umso bedauerlicher empfinden wir daher die Schirmherrschaft der Veranstaltung.

Thank you Chimamanda and Maria. Bei all dem Wahn um den Statement-Boom stellt sich die Frage: Die Rede ist einerseits von der britischen Ikone Vivienne Westwood geb. Ihr Auftritt vor Thatcher gilt als einer der unvergesslichsten Modemomente dieses Jahrzehnts und als Herausforderung des Establishments durch die Modewelt. Ihre Kollektionen wurden unter anderem auf der London Fashion Week, ab in Paris sowie ab in Mailand gezeigt.

Immer noch entwirft Westwood ihre Mode mit sozialkritischem Hintergrund. Mit diesem Vorhaben blieb er nicht allein: Ein Blick in die vergangenen Jahrhunderte zeigt, dass das, was wir tragen, immer schon auch eine gesellschaftspolitische Dimension hatte. Schon im Alten Rom, besonders aber vom Mittelalter bis ins Barock war bestimmte Kleidung nur bestimmten Schichten vorbehalten. Im ideologischen Kampf gegen den Westen, war jegliche Angleichung an ein amerikanisches Ideal untersagt.

Diese Aussagen kollidierten allerdings mit den Vorstellungen der Jugendlichen nach Distinktion. Neues Deutschland , Dass gerade in Jugendmoden mehr als nur Trotz gegen Konventionen stecken kann, zeigt auch das Beispiel der Schlaghose. Es ist einfach ein Shirt zu kaufen und zu tragen und es erscheint genauso einfach ein Shirt mit politischer Aufschrift zu kaufen und zu tragen. Viele der Probleme, die bereits von Hamnett in den Achtziger Jahren thematisiert wurden, sind nach wie vor aktuell. Trotzdem kann ein Statement ein erster Schritt sein, dessen Relevanz sich erst in einer ihm folgenden Handlung manifestiert.

Bals de victimes, in: Barry , Samaha Hayes , Jakk Wearing your heart on your sleeve Ihring , Silvia Endlich trauen sich Designer politische Haltungen zu! Pelka , Anna Segreti , Guilia Missoni talks politics with pink cat-eared hats at Milan show Stavrinos , Melina Mit einem Bandana gegen Donald Trump, in: Von Heyden , Alexa Dieses Dior- Shirt tragen jetzt alle Modefrauen Waters , Jamie Young , Sarah Wilcox , Claire Manchmal — oft genug — geschieht Unerwartetes ital.: Mindestens ebenso vertraut ist uns das Prinzip der Verfeinerung und Verbesserung engl.: Wie passt das zusammen?

Dort arbeitet man eher mit langfristigen Zeithorizonten. Damit schaffen sie Rahmenbedingungen. Kinder brauchen Platz zum Spielen. Da gibt es wenig Erfahrungen oder gesichertes Wissen. In den gestaltenden Disziplinen finden sich hierzu durchaus unterschiedliche Positionen. Das muss man nicht. Es ist ja durchdrungen davon. Improvisation ist zum einen eine Alltagshandlung.

Wie wollen Sie denn sonst neue Situationen bewerkstelligen? Das Zeitgewinnen ist so ein Trick, der auch gerne unbewusst angewendet wird. In der Kunst, in der Musik, im Schauspiel, wird ja genau das gemacht. Welche schlagen Sie vor? Im Symposium definieren wir drei Horizonte improvisatorischen Handelns: Die Ebene der spezifischen Bedingungen, unter denen Provisorien entstehen und spezifischen Formen, die sie annehmen, 2. Worin liegen hingegen die Schwachstellen im Improvisatorischen? Der Kontext ist entscheidend. Denn wenn jemand in seiner Garage provisorisches Handeln ausprobiert, interessiert das ja niemanden.

Aber nicht immer ist impulsives Handeln schlecht. Man behilft sich eben. Da sollte fein unterschieden werden. Improvisation ist gleichbedeutend mit Erfahrung. Und die Situation, in der improvisiert wird, gibt eine Response, sie ist ja Bestandteil dessen. Aber woran sehen und bemessen Sie das? Egal, ob sie misslingen, oder nicht. Insofern kann die Frage nach Schwachstellen nicht einfach beantwortet werden, oder nur so: Es kommt darauf an, in welchem Kontext Sie diese Frage stellen. In westlichen, wohlhabenden Gesellschaften? Ich bin immer wieder erstaunt, wie sehr die Vorstellung von Langfristigkeit und Planungssicherheit das Leben vieler durchzieht.

Werde ich in Krisen um Rat gefragt, lautet der mitunter: Danach sehen wir weiter. Wir alle kennen und machen das: Aber sie sind es, die mitbestimmen, inwieweit eine Partizipation, eine Teilhabe bzw. Sie lebt und arbeitet in Berlin sowie in Kanada. Das Symposium richtet sich an alle Interessierten: Das geht, so scheint mir, nur mit einem sehr hochtrabenden Genie-Begriff.

Die Universalisierung des Kunstbegriffs bringt freilich auch Rezeptionsungewissheiten mit sich: Oder ist genau diese Frage egal? So etwas wie eine dritte Bewertungskategorie kann es meiner Meinung nach nicht geben: Zumindest stehen die Themenspektren des Artivismus immer in Zusammenhang mit einem konkreten Zeitgeschehen. Aber auch seine Stilmittel sind meist schwer von den damit in Verbindung stehenden Protestkulturen zu trennen. Soziale Bewegungen, insbesondere Protestbewegungen erweitern ihr Formenrepertoire ja permanent.

Dabei werden immer auch neue Herangehensweisen ausprobiert und weiterentwickelt. Hiermit sind zwei Seiten einer Medaille verbunden: Und, wie gerade besprochen, es schadet vielleicht sogar der Wirkkraft einer Aktion, wenn sie von vornherein als Kunst deklariert wird. Und Hanno Rauterberg hat recht: Diese versuchen oft auch gar nicht, andere Milieus zu erreichen und Menschen zum Umdenken zu bewegen; vielmehr sind sie stark an ihrem Publikum orientiert, dessen Erwartungen sie entsprechen wollen.

Auch hier ist es im letzten eher ein Nachteil, wenn Projekte als Kunst deklariert werden. Statt gutes lieber schlechtes Gewissen erzeugen: Und zwar sowohl in Bezug auf ihre Form als auch auf ihre Funktion. Die Frage nach politischem Handeln und gesellschaftlichen Idealen stellt und beantwortet er letztlich nicht nur mit anderen Werkzeugen und Methoden, sondern auch mit einer anderen Zielvorgabe als beispielsweise politische Entscheider oder Sozialarbeiter. Der Vorteil der Kunst besteht freilich immer darin, dass es den Adressaten z. Wo beginnt letztlich die Kunst, im Gegensatz zu — sagen wir — politischer oder Sozialarbeit?

Vor allem stellt sich auch die Frage, ob der Anspruch, Kunst zu machen, mit einer Skandalisierungslogik des Boulevards vereinbar ist, denn traditionell hat sich Kunst massenmedialen Kategorien ja gerade verweigert. Hier scheint mir ein Maximum an Zielgruppenorientierung und Aufmerksamkeitsmanagement erreicht zu sein. Offen bleibt stellenweise, inwieweit all dies der Sache an sich dient. Das stimmt, allerdings ist dieser Vorwurf vielleicht manchmal etwas ungerecht und einseitig.

Entsprechend wollen sie gerne eine Art von Tribut leisten. Sie sprechen einen wichtigen Unterschied an. In this course, you will learn both, not least by producing an activist video yourself! We will seek to explore key elements of media studies such as its history, its relationship with activism, its communication practices, audiovisual development and aesthetics, visual design, and the social and cultural changes that have occurred in time.

The format of this project will bring the challenge and the opportunity to the participants to inquire media studies not only in a theoretical, reflexive and critical way, but also will call attendees into action to develop their own skills and aesthetics regarding communication for activist movement. Hence, video activism is a type of media activism that encompasses a broad grouping of individuals. The people involved, the methods used and the energy committed all vary enormously according to each project.

In this workshop we will learn how to create activism video communication, and we will also provide theoretical and practical tools to make independently audiovisual products. Finally, we will work on the audio and video editing. Everybody will produce their own product ready to publish on the web. The workshop will prepare creative producers in the context of activism for the production of audiovisual projects to document their work in the activism, cooperation and communication field.

You may start do develop your concept within the course, but in case you already have a specific topic e. So we can think about specific people and institutions to meet, information to provide, places to visit etc. It will help you to safe time, keep focus on your work and finally create a better outcome. People who would like to join the course, please register here! Und wenn ich in diesem Zusammenhang daran erinnern darf, dass z. Was das mit Design zu tun hat? Not a day passes without a great percentage of humanity publishing one or numerous texts: From 13 to 14 June roundtable discussions, short performances, workshops and literary readings took place, aiming to get a grip on the contemporary publishing sphere and current ecosystems of literature.

The speakers of the conference were writers, artists and representatives of initiatives. One topic discussed was the traditional idea of the solitary author and how it has changed in our present day and might develop in the future. Another focus lied on investigations of the different locations of contemporary literatures between an abstract sphere and a material space. Following this train of thought he reflected on our present society and current phenomena related to the nature and use of social media.

He presented two interpretations: Twitter continent, 14 Jun Writing is thus very material of the digital space. Yet, how can we maintain the public nature of this space? How can we prevent this space from being owned and structured by private companies? In order to explain the meaning of this concept and to describe how literature contributes to the production of our public space, he presented an action-research project focused on the space that is the Trans-Canada Highway.

Margaret Hillenbrand, who is Associate Professor of Modern Chinese Literature and Culture at the University of Oxford and works in the fields of Chinese film and visual culture, gave a talk on the relationship between photographs on the internet and public memory. One case that she spoke about was the image of the drowned three-year-old Syrian boy Alan Kurdi whose lifeless body washed up on a beach near the Turkish town of Bodrum and was captured in September This photograph caused a dramatic upturn in international concern over the refugee crisis.

With the stated aim to draw attention to the crisis, Chinese artist Ai Weiwei recreated the photo. Based in Berlin, the platform offers short texts and videos for free reading and watching. Their design elongated pages, big letters, clear typography is especially made for reading on smartphones and tablets. This publishing house works with international artists and authors and distributes its books worldwide. The design of the publications follows aesthetics that remind of classical analogue art books. The Publishing Sphere Reader Photo: Moments like this one showed that the conference did not only bring together people from various backgrounds, but also managed to create stimulating exchange and enriching conversations.

During these two days a publishing sphere of its very own kind could emerge. It would be great to see new ideas and collaborations between the participants developing in the future. The participants, their backgrounds and the material that they handed in prior to the event were captured in a reader. Fuhrhop geht dabei insbesondere der Frage nach, wie man neu Angekommene so unterbringen kann, dass deren Integration gut gelingt.

Manches ist gleichwohl in der Praxis nicht immer leicht umzusetzen. Tom Bieling , Juni Since the second volume of EP, a book series edited by Alex Coles, is on design fiction it had to so it seems include their work. But as there are also many other designers, artists and writers working in this field, it is worth to have a closer look at these diverse practices.

And fortunately the publication is also offering this wider perspective. She does this mainly in order to explore and better understand the sorts of developments that happen when external influences change habits — like it had happened in Japan in the Meiji era. When this area began, around , people started to wear Western-style dresses, and together with these dresses, scissors had to be introduced in the country. That is why sword-smiths turned to scissor making. Zeit Online vom 8.

Die Welt vom 7. In pseudo- dokumentarischer Form vgl. Als Format des performativen Reality-TV vgl. Keppler 8 ist die Sendung durch dramaturgische Konstruktionen vor einem realen Hintergrund gekennzeichnet vgl. Decker und Weber et al. Insbesondere in den neueren Staffeln des Formats ist zudem eine zunehmende narrative Einbindung der am Produktionsprozess beteiligten Akteure Maske, Kamera, Aufnahmeleitung etc.

In den Vordergrund tritt u. Zur Konzeption der Person in Castingshows. Medien — Rituale — Jugend. Perspektiven auf Medienkommunikation im Alltag junger Menschen. Larjow, Eugenia et al.: Ulrike Prokop et al. Geiles Leben, falscher Glamour. Weber, Annemarie et al.: Geschichte wird gemacht und ihr Gemacht-Sein wird reflexiv ausgestellt: Damit ist aber auch gesagt, dass Geschichte erstens ein offener Prozess ist und zweitens vom Menschen gemacht wird; die einzelnen Subjekte wie auch die Gattung kommen als Akteure einer sich zum Besseren entwickelnden Geschichte in den Blick.

Dabei ist entscheidend, dass der Begriff des Geschichtszeichens auf einer Trennung von Ereignis und Betrachter aufbaut. White konzentriert sich auf die narrative Beschaffenheit von historiographischen Texten. Re-enactments bilden dabei eine Form des klassischen Making-ofs , indem sie welt- historische Begebenheiten als gleichzeitig faktisch Geschehenes und performativ Angeeignetes zeigen. Eine der hervorstechendsten Figuren ist dabei der Zeitzeuge.

Jener steht zwischen kanonisierter Geschichte und individuellen Geschichten und ist seit seinem Auftritt im Prozess gegen Adolf Eichmann von eine mediale Figur. Geschichte in ihrer modernen Fassung wird von dem Einen und von den Vielen gemacht. Jahrhundert als Menschheitsgeschichte imaginiert wird. Der Einzelne macht nur dann Geschichte, wenn er beobachtet und darstellt, dass die Menschheit Geschichte macht. Formate des retrospektiven wie des simultanen Making-ofs haben entsprechend auch die Figur des Zeitzeugen reflexiv durchdrungen: Mose 3,6 einen Apfel isst.

Dementsprechend war das Ritual erotisch konnotiert Obermayer Glyn Davis, Gary Needham Hg. Warhol in Ten Takes. The Black Hole of the Camera. The Films of Andy Warhol. How-tos finden sich in verschiedenen Medienformaten. Diese Beispiele zeigen die Bandbreite von How-to-Videos: Die mediale Aufbereitung entspricht dem informellen Charakter der How-to-Formate. Do It Yourself nach Anleitung. Gleichzeitig sind die Improvisation Technologies als offenes, interaktives System konzipiert vgl.

Somit tragen die Improvisation Technologies auch prospektiven Charakter. Das ist primitiv, und das sind wir nicht. Am Ende des Jahrhunderts muss man seine Arbeitsweise nicht geheim halten. Ein Interview mit William Forsythe. William Forsythe Improvisation Technologies. Kochen als kommentiertes, gezeigtes Machen.

Beim Perfekten Dinner kochen verschiedene Teilnehmer gegeneinander und werden von ihren Gegnern anhand der Gerichte, des gastgebenden Services und der Tischdekoration beurteilt. Begleitet vom ersten Satz aus Beethovens 9. Sinfonie, beginnt die Einstellungsfolge mit der Aufnahme eines brennenden Gullys, wobei die Flammen synchron zum Auf- und Abschwellen der Musik lodern.

Der Deckel hat den passenden Topf gefunden. Die Kasserolle ist auf einer einflammigen Kochgelegenheit, diese auf einem Herd, jener mit den vorderen Beinen in einem Kinderbett platziert. Dahinter lehnen drei Hornobjekte an der Wand. Neues Denken in Wissenschaft und Alltag. Von der Physik zur Philosophie. Zeitlichkeiten zwischen Produktions- und Rezeptionsprozessen. Auch die konventionelle Gewichtung der Rollen verkehrt sich: Pohl , Welzer Das Making-of ihrer Literatur wird gleichzeitig als ein Making-of ihres Lebens und ihrer Person inszeniert.

What Is Performance Studies? The Performance Studies Reader. Die Psychologie unserer Lebensgeschichte. Themen und Tendenzen , Bd. Als klassisches Making-of kann das im US-amerikanischen Studiokontext entstandene Filmformat verstanden werden, das die Entstehung einer Filmproduktion nachzeichnet und heute im Zuge der DVD-Kultur am weitesten verbreitet ist. In der Regel authentifiziert es als Paratext einen filmischen Haupttext bzw.

Reclams Sachlexikon des Films. Beobachtung von Produktionsprozessen auffassen lassen. Einen Spezialfall der deskriptiven, prospektiven Making-ofs stellt dabei die Simulation dar, bei welcher ein Produktionsprozess am Modell antizipiert und im Hinblick auf sein Gelingen sowie seine Konsequenzen beschrieben und analysiert wird. Zentral ist, dass nicht nur die Recherche und Materialgenese, sondern auch die Edition des Making-ofs bereits zeitgleich zum Produktionsprozess erfolgt.

Die finale Gestalt des Werks ist dem simultanen Making-of somit prinzipiell indisponibel. Tagebuchaufzeichnungen sind prinzipiell auch im Feld des simultanen Making-ofs anzusiedeln, werden allerdings zumeist retrospektiv rezipiert. Das Buch vom Beiwerk des Buches. Der Netzwerk-Begriff wurde vor allem in der soziologischen Forschung stark differenziert entwickelt.

Die daraufhin formulierte soziale Kritik vgl. Social Media und das Internet Zeuge eines allumfassenden Paradigmenwechsel wird oder bereits schon ist, nimmt die Making-of-Perspektive eine machtvolle Position ein. Auch Making-ofs unterliegen, wider ihrem oft betonten Versprechen vom nicht selektierten Blick hinter die Kulissen, einem starken Diskurs der Selektion, wodurch bewusst einige Dinge gezeigt werden und andere wiederum nicht vgl.

Doch gerade diese Ausschlusslogik dient der Konstitution der Netzwerkstruktur ebenso wie der des Making-ofs. Bezogen auf Making-ofs zeigt sich dies auf zwei Ebenen: Beobachten wir Prozesse, dann gilt es, machende Individuen gleichsam wie die prozessinitiierenden oder prozessherstellenden Objekte zu identifizieren. Ohne die technische Umsetzung und den Gestus des Zeigens ist ein Machensprozess Tanzen im Wohnzimmer eben kein Making-of, sondern nur privates Tanzen vgl.

Wirtschaft, Gesellschaft, Kultur , 3 Bd. Sabine Fastert et al. An Introduction to Actor-Network-Theory. Theoretische Konzepte und empirische Anwendungsfelder. Andreas Hepp et al. Karlheinz Barck et al. Stuttgart, Weimar , S. Beispielsweise bezogen auf das Format Casting-Shows liegt hier jeder Staffel der selbe Experimentieraufbau zugrunde: Die substantielle Vorstellung von Wirklichkeit weicht einer funktionalen.

Becker, Ilka et al.: Just not in time. Texte, Media Made , http: Orderly Disorder in Contemporary Literature and Science. Literary Texts as Nonlinear Patterns. Referenztext theoretisch zu fassen. Vom literarischen Kontext erfuhr der Paratext-Begriff, den Genette u. Rezensionen, Interviews und den verlegerischen Peritexten u. Jedoch haben sich v. Referenzprozess und Produktionsprozess des Making-ofs sind dann bereits abgeschlossen.

Der nonlineare Produktionsprozess wird von den Rezipienten durch eine Interaktion mit den Produzentinnen aufgrund einer oftmals medial vermittelten autopoietischen Feedbackschleife mit hervorgebracht und gleichzeitig als Making-of konsumiert.

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Dabei kann die Rolle des Rezipienten von Seiten der Produzenten so festgelegt oder aber vom Rezipienten so gewollt sein, dass er sich selbst weniger ko-produzierend am Produktions- und Making-of-Prozess beteiligt als diese zu rezipieren. Die Struktur des Switches und die Kultur des Systems. Barbara Mundel et al. Heart of the City. Recherchen zum Stadttheater der Zukunft. Somit werden in Making-ofs Prozesse konstruiert und durch ihre mediale Inszenierung in Beziehung gesetzt.

Wie Bausteine werden sie zu einer linearen bzw. Was Teil des Making-ofs ist, ist daher z. Diese ist selbst ein offener Prozess. Oft werden Prozesse z. Durch das Filmformat ist das Malen bzw. Ein Nichtlineares Medium zwischen Buch und Wissensbank. Rain ist der Titel eines Musikvideos von Madonna, das am Juni erstmals ausgestrahlt wurde.

Auf der Bildebene des Videos wird dies nur sporadisch umgesetzt: Handlungsort ist ein Filmstudio, das sich den Schriftzeichen auf Schildern und Computerbildschirmen zufolge in Japan befindet. Belichtungsmesser und Synchronklappen werden in den Bildausschnitt gehalten. Eine Skizze von ital. Aus der Perspektive des Making-ofs ist v.

Nach Oliver Jahraus ist diese Idee einem kulturwissenschaftlichen Drang zur Historisierung geschuldet, der Gegenwart immer nur als Endpunkt einer historischen Entwicklung wahrnimmt und so in ihrer Spezifik verfehlt 8. Eine dieser Strategien besteht darin, auf Skizzen als Zwischenprodukte und Zeugen der Entstehung zuzugreifen. Vor allem filmische oder fotografische Making-of-Formate sind jedoch notwendigerweise mit einem Medienwechsel verbunden, der auf die Grenzen einer materialgerechten Dokumentation hinweist. Gegenwart als Provokation der Geistes- und Kulturwissenschaften.

Zeichnen und Schreiben als Verfahren der Selbstaufzeichnung. Bei der Tagung Making of. November Premiere im Schauspielhaus Wuppertal hatte. Das Format des Making-ofs weist auch auf ein gesellschaftliches Interesse an einem Kinofilm hin, der den Produktionsprozess einer Wiedereinstudierung des Werkes einer bekannten Choreographin zeigt. Scheitern als Ausgang des Produktionsprozesses ist unter dergleichen Bedingungen weder diskursivier- noch integrierbar: The Novelist at the Crossroads. Poems, Tales, Essays and Reviews. Wesentliches Attribut dieser Szene ist der Spiegel. Anders als die Anleitung oder das How-to zielt die Toilettenszene nicht unmittelbar auf Nachahmung, ist also kein prospektives Making-of.

Zum immer wiederkehrenden Repertoire der Grabmalereien aus den Jahren um v. Nicht selten erotisch aufgeladen, erfreute sich ihre Darstellung bereits in der Antike einiger Beliebtheit und wird seither zumindest in motivischer Hinsicht mehr oder minder ungebrochen tradiert. Davies, Norman de Garis: Die Inszenierung eines Raumes im Das Relief der Farbe.

Saint-Simon, Louis de Rouvroy de. Die junge Frau bei der Toilette. Ein Bildthema im venezianischen Cinquecento. The Nelson-Atkins Museum of Art. A Handbook of the Collection. Zur Visualisierung von Frauenstimmen im Videoclip. Vermarktungsstrategien zwischen Selbstdarstellung und Fremdbestimmung. Bielefeld im Druck.